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Geography: Rivers

Spain, a country with a diverse landscape that includes rugged mountains, rolling plains, and extensive coastlines, is traversed by several major rivers that have played a vital role in its history, culture, and development. The Ebro, Duero, and Guadalquivir are among the most significant, each flowing through unique regions and contributing to the country's rich ecological diversity. These rivers provide crucial water resources for agriculture, nurturing the lands that produce Spain's renowned olives, grapes, and other crops. They are also important for hydroelectric power, water supply, and as natural corridors for transportation and trade. Beyond their economic and ecological roles, Spanish rivers are steeped in cultural significance, featuring in literature, art, and folklore, and are often the sites of historic cities and settlements. Additionally, they offer recreational opportunities, attracting locals and tourists for activities such as fishing, kayaking, and scenic walks. The table below presents an overview of the major rivers in Spain, detailing their lengths, sources, and outflows.

River Name




Ebro River

910 km (565 mi)

Fontibre Springs, Cantabria

Mediterranean Sea

Douro River

897 km (557 mi)

Picos de Urbión, Soria

Atlantic Ocean

Tagus River

813 km (505 mi)

Montes Universales, Teruel

Atlantic Ocean

Guadiana River

744 km (462 mi)

Villarrubia de los Ojos, Castile–La Mancha

Gulf of Cádiz, Atlantic Ocean

Guadalquivir River

657 km (408 mi)

Sierra de Cazorla, Jaén

Gulf of Cádiz, Atlantic Ocean

Júcar River

498 km (310 mi)

Cuenca, Castilla-La Mancha

Mediterranean Sea

Genil River

336 km (209 mi)

Sierra Nevada, Granada

Guadalquivir River

Miño River

315 km (196 mi)

Peneda-Gerês, Spain/Portugal

Atlantic Ocean

Turia River

280 km (174 mi)

Montes Universales, Teruel

Mediterranean Sea

Esla River

275 km (171 mi)

Picos de Europa, León

Órbigo River, Atlantic

*Sources do not differentiate between the length of river that exists within the country’s borders and the overall length of the river irrespective of national borders.