Menu
Menu

Spain Flag Spain

Country Overview

Business Culture

Clothing Size Guides

Communications

Cost of Living

Culture and Society

Demographics

Driving and Autos

Economy and Trade

Education

Educational Resources

Environment

Export Process

Food Culture and Drink

Geography

Government

Health and Medical

History

Holidays and Festivals

Import Process

Language

Kids' Stuff

LGBTQ+

Life Stages

Maps

Media Outlets

Money and Banking

Music

Names

National Symbols

Points of Interest

Quality of Life

Real Estate

Religion

Security Briefing

Social Indicators

Travel Essentials

Names: Surnames

Surnames (or family names) are hereditary and are often common to all members of a family.

Occupational surnames are derived from an occupation. Examples include Taylor, Smith, and Baker.

Toponymic surnames are derived from a place. Examples include Ayers (a person from Ayers, Scotland) and Bach (German for a person who lives near a stream).

Religious surnames are derived directly or indirectly from religious texts or traditions. Examples include Christian biblical names, Hebrew names from the Torah, and Muslim names from the Quran.

Nickname derived surnames are those based upon appearance, temperament, or personality. An example is the German surname Schwarzkopf (in German, schwarz=black, Kopf= head) meaning a person with dark hair.

Ornamental surnames are those that were adopted or forced upon individuals (and families) under political pressure.

Patronymic surnames are derived from the given name of a male ancestor. An example is the English patronymic surname Peterson, meaning son of Peter.

Female patronymic surnames (also known as female possessive suffix surnames) are a female form of a patronymic surname, most typically a patronymic surname with a feminine suffix added. For example, in Russian, the wife of Mikhail Gorbachev is Raisa Gorbachova, -ev is replaced with ova.

Matronymic surnames are derived from the given name of a female ancestor. An example is the English matronymic surname Tiffany.

Popular Surnames (Family) in

Rank Name Meaning Distribution
1 Aguilar Spanish surname based on a toponym referring to someone from a place where eagles live. The exact origin of this old surname is currently unknown. 60,615
2 Alonso Spanish surname based on the male given name Alonso, a cognate of Alfonso. It derived from the Visigothic given name Adelfonsus which combined the words adal meaning noble and funs, meaning "ready." 205,284
3 Álvarez Spanish patronymic surname based on the male Spanish and Portuguese given name Álvaro, meaning "son of Álvaro." The name Álvaro has Germanic roots. 288,183
4 Arias Spanish patronymic surname based on the male given name Arias, a variation of Ares, a Greek god of war. 53,865
5 Benítez Spanish patronymic derived from the given name Benito, meaning "son of Benito." Benito means "blessed." 52,667
6 Blanco Spanish surname based on a moniker. The name derived to the Spanish adjective blanco which means "white" and could have referred to a pale or white-haired person. 127,323
7 Bravo Portuguese and Spanish surname based on a moniker for a fierce and courageous person. The name derived from bravo meaning "brave." 46,417
8 Caballero Spanish surname based on an occupational surname or moniker for a soldier. The name derived from the Spanish noun caballero which means "knight" or "horseman." 62,015
9 Cabrera Spanish surname based on a toponym or occupational surname. It derived from the Latin noun capraria, meaning "goat place" and therefore could have referred to someone living near or working at such a place. 68,524
10 Calvo Spanish surname based on a moniker for a bald-headed man. It derived from the Latin word calvus which means "bald." 72,941
11 Campos Portuguese and Spanish surname based on a toponym referring to an area of fields. The name derived from the plural noun campos meaning "fields." 67,178
12 Cano Spanish surname based on a toponym or moniker. The name could refer to one of many places by this name in Portugal and Spain; based on the Latin word canus, it could have also been used as a nickname for an old or gray haired person. 79,449
13 Carmona Spanish surname based on a toponym referring to any of the towns called Carmona in Santander and Seville, Spain. Exact origin and meaning of the name are currently unknown. 52,380
14 Carrasco Spanish surname based on a toponym or occupational surname. The name derived from the Spanish noun carrasco meaning "holm oak." This tree is very strong and has the stamina of the first carrascos, royal messengers. 64,554
15 Castillo Spanish surname based on a toponym or occupational surname. The name derived from the Spanish noun castillo meaning "castle"; several Spanish towns are named with it. The name could have referred to someone living near a castle, to someone involved in the construction of a castle, or to someone in the castle's service. 85,096
16 Castro Galician, Italian, Jewish (Sephardic), Portuguese, and Spanish surname based on a toponym. It derived from the Latin noun castrum meaning "castle." The name could have referred to someone living near a castle, to someone involved in the construction of a castle, or to someone in the castle's service. 117,558
17 Cortés Catalan, Portuguese, and Spanish surname probably based on the adjective cortés derived from the Old French adjective curteis which meant "courteous" and "polite." The name could have been a moniker for a well-mannered person and was probably used ironically as well. The English surname Curtis can be considered an equivalent. The name Cortés could also be based on a toponym referring to one of the many places in Portugal and Spain with names containing the word cortes meaning "courts." 82,920
18 Crespo Castilian, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish surname probably based on a moniker referring to a person with curly hair. The name derived from the Latin word crispus meaning "curly haired." 51,543
19 Cruz Spanish surname based on the male Latin given name Cruz.  The name derived from the Portuguese and Spanish words cruz meaning "cross" and referred to the crucifixion. The name could have also developed as an occupational surname for the maker or seller of crosses. 71,591
20 Delgado Portuguese and Spanish patronymic surname based on a moniker. The name derived from the Portuguese and Spanish word delgado which means "slender" or "slim." 118,963
21 Díaz Castilian, Portuguese, and Spanish patronymic surname based on the male given name Diego, meaning "son of Diego." The name derived from the male Hebrew given name Ya'aqov which became Diego, then Jaime, and finally Santiago. The name is a relative of the English surnames Jacobs, Jacobson, James, and Jameson. The name could also be based on the Greek name Didáchos and the Latin name Didactus meaning "educated." 345,991
22 Díez Spelling variant of the Castilian, Portuguese, and Spanish patronymic surname Díaz based on the male given name Diego, meaning "son of Diego." The name derived from the male Hebrew given name Ya'aqov which became Diego, then Jaime, and finally Santiago. The name is a relative of the English surnames Jacobs, Jacobson, James, and Jameson. The name could also be based on the Greek name Didáchos and the Latin name Didactus meaning "educated." 65,835
23 Domínguez Spanish surname based on the patronymic surname meaning "son of Domingo." The name Domingo derived from the Latin name Dominicus which meant "of the Lord." 159,629
24 Durán Catalan, Galician, and Spanish surname based on the male given name Durand. It derived from the Latin durandus, meaning "enduring" and "lasting." 54,723
25 Esteban Spanish surname based on the male Spanish given name Esteban. The name derived from the Greek name Stephanos which means "crown." The English names Stephen, Stevens, and Stevenson can be considered relatives. 47,223
26 Fernández Spanish patronymic of the given name Fernando, meaning "son of Fernando." The name Fernando derived from the old Spanish form Ferdinando of the Germanic name Fardinand; fardi meaning "journey" and -nand standing for "brave." 926,719
27 Ferrer Catalan occupational surname for a person who forges objects of iron, a blacksmith or farrier. It derived from the Latin word ferraria for a craftsman; its English equivalent is the surname Smith. 58,042
28 Flores Spanish patronymic surname based on the male Spanish given name Floro derived from the Roman Florus, meaning "son of Floro." The name developed from the Latin word flos meaning "flower." 68,506
29 Franco Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish surname based on the male Spanish given name Franco which originated in the old Germanic name Franco. The name derived from a toponym related to Franconia, the region settled by the Germanic tribe of the Franks.  The name corresponds to the English name Frank. 43,511
30 Fuentes Spanish surname based on a toponym referring to one of many places by this name or from any place known for its spring. The name derived from the Spanish plural noun fuentes meaning "fountains." 65,427
31 Gallardo Spanish patronymic surname probably based on the French male given name Gaillard. The name's meaning is "good-looking." 45,780
32 Gallego Spanish surname based on a toponym referring to the Spanish region of Galicia in northwestern Spain. 71,734
33 García Spanish patronymic surname probably based on an ancient Basque, Portuguese, or Spanish given name. The name could have derived from the Basque words (H)artz (bear) or garze (young) or even both of them. 1,489,440
34 Garrido Spanish surname based on a Portuguese and Spanish moniker. The name derived from the Portuguese and Spanish adjective garrido meaning "elegant" or "handsome." 87,654
35 Gil Surname probably based on an Anglicized form of the Scottish or Irish name McGill or on a male Hebrew given name or byname meaning "joy." 145,044
36 Gimenez Spanish patronymic surname of Basque origin, based on the male Spanish given name Jimeno, meaning "son of Jimeno." The name Jimeno derived from the name Shimon which meant "He has heard." and corresponds to the English name Simonson. 57,174
37 Gómez Galician and Portuguese patronymic surname based on the male given name Gomes. It derived from the Visigothic word guma meaning "man"; the English names Adam and Adams share this meaning. 504,099
38 González Spanish patronymic surname based on the male Spanish given name Gonzalo, meaning "son of Gonzalo." The name derived from the Visigothic meaning "battle." 932,929
39 Guerrero Spanish surname based on a moniker or occupational surname for a soldier. The name derived from the Spanish noun guerra meaning "war." The name could have been used as a nickname for an aggressive person. 80,116
40 Gutiérrez Spanish patronymic based on a form of the male Spanish given name Gualterio, meaning "son of Gutierre." The name probably derived from a Visigothic given name. This name represents the Spanish form of the English surname Walters. 197,234
41 Hernández Jewish (Sephardic) and Spanish patronymic surname based on the male given names Hernando or Fernando, meaning "son of Hernando." Hernando derived from the Germanic name Fardinand; fardi meaning "journey" and -nand standing for "brave." 360,460
42 Herrera Castilian Spanish occupational surname for a person who forges objects of iron, a blacksmith or farrier. It derived from the Latin word ferraria for a craftsman; its English equivalent is the surname Smith. 69,841
43 Herrero Castilian Spanish occupational surname for a person who forges objects of iron, a blacksmith or farrier. It derived from the Latin word ferraria for a craftsman; its English equivalent is the surname Smith. 60,543
44 Hidalgo Galician Spanish occupational surname, given to those who fought bravely against the moors, meaning "nobleman" in Spanish. A variation of it is the surname Fidalgo. 57,714
45 Iglesias Spanish surname based on a toponym, a moniker, or an occupational surname. Iglesias means "churches." 91,777
46 Jiménez Spanish patronymic surname of Basque origin, based on the male Spanish given name Jimeno, meaning "son of Jimeno." The name Jimeno, developed from Ximeno, possibly derived from Basque; seme meaning "son." The name Jimeno could have also derived from the Greek name Simeon which means "He has heard." and corresponds to the English surnames Simon and Simmons. 390,932
47 León Spanish patronymic surname based on the male Spanish given name León derived from the Latin name Leo (lion), meaning "of León." The name could also be based on a toponym referring to the Kingdom of León. 69,424
48 López Spanish patronymic surname based on the given name Llopis or Lope, meaning "son of Llopis" or "son of Lope." Llopis (or Lope) derived from the Latin word lupus which means "wolf." It corresponds to the English surname Wolfson. 893,278
49 Lorenzo Spanish patronymic surname based on the Spanish and Italian given name Lorenzo. The name developed from the Roman name Laurentius which was a toponym meaning "from Laurentum." This name could have derived from the Latin noun laurus meaning "laurel." 57,823
50 Lozano Castilian Spanish surname based on a moniker. The name derived from the Spanish adjective lozano meaning "good looking" or "glowing." 81,793
51 Marín Spanish surname based on an occupational surname from Galicia. It derived from the Latin noun marinus meaning "sailor" and from the male given name Marinus. 105,903
52 Márquez Spanish patronymic based on the male given name Marcos, meaning "son of Marcos."  Marcos derived from the Latin name Marcus; the English names Martin and Mark are relatives. 68,724
53 Martín Spanish patronymic of the given name Martín. Martín derived from the Roman name Martinus which originated in the name of the Roman god of war, Mars. The English names Marcus, Mark, and Martin are relatives. 496,403
54 Martínez Spanish patronymic of the given name Martín, meaning "son of Martín." The name Martín derived from the Roman name Martinus which originated in the name of the Roman god of war, Mars. The English names Marcus, Mark, and Martin are relatives; the patronymic surname corresponds to the English surname Martinson. 844,540
55 Méndez Portuguese and Spanish patronymic surname of the male Spanish given name Mendo, meaning "son of Mendo." Mendo derived from the Visigothic Hermenegild name meaning "entire gift." 73,649
56 Molina Catalan and Spanish surname based on a toponym or occupational surname. It could refer to one of several towns called Molina. The name derived from the Spanish word molino (mill) and could therefore also be an occupational surname describing a person who owns or works in a grain mill, a miller. It is related to the English surname Miller.   123,555
57 Montero Castilian Spanish surname based on an occupational surname or moniker. The name derived from the Spanish monte which means "hill" or "mountain" but quite often referred to a forest full of game. The surname Montero therefore means "huntsman"; the English surname Hunter is a relative. 57,891
58 Mora Spanish surname probably based on a toponym, moniker, or ornamental surname. It derived from the Spanish word mora meaning "blackberry." 54,071
59 Morales Spanish surname probably based on a toponym or ornamental surname. It could have derived from the Spanish plural of moral meaning "mulberry trees" but could also be a patronymic version meaning "son of Moral." 121,940
60 Moreno Jewish (Sephardic), Portuguese, and Castilian Spanish surname based on a moniker or toponym. It derived from the Spanish adjective moreno meaning "dark-haired" or "dark-skinned." The name could have originated in the Latin maurus meaning "Moor." 323,701
61 Moya Spanish surname based on a toponym referring to one of the places so named. The name could have also developed from the male Latin given name Modius which derived from a Latin unit of measurement for wine. 47,148
62 Muñoz Spanish patronymic surname based on the male Spanish given name Munio or Muño, meaning "son of Munio" or "son of Muño." The name Munio derived from the Latin munis, meaning "forced" or "imposed." The name could have also derived from the Basque muño, meaning "hill," as a toponym related to the English surname Hill. 285,407
63 Navarro Basque, Italian, Jewish (Sephardic), and Spanish surname based on a toponym referring to the city of Navarre, Spain. The name derived from the Spanish noun Navarro means "meadow surrounded by mountains." 182,250
64 Nieto Spanish surname based on a moniker for a person descended from a respected
 elder or leader. The name derived from the Spanish noun nieto which means "grandson."
62,211
65 Nuñez Spanish patronymic surname based on the male Spanish given name Nuño, meaning "son of Nuño." The name Nuño derived from the Latin nonus, meaning "the ninth child" or "grandfather." 90,053
66 Ortega Spanish surname based on a Galician toponym or Spanish moniker. The name could refer to the town Ortega in A Coruña, Spain or to a nickname derived from Ortega meaning "black goose." 120,342
67 Ortiz Spanish patronymic surname of Basque origin based on the male Basque given name Orti. The name could have derived from the Latin fortúnius, the Latin word for "fortunate," or from the Latin fortis, meaning "strong." 109,869
68 Pardo Portuguese and Spanish surname based on a moniker for a person with a tawny hair color. The name derived from the Latin noun pardus which meant "leopard." 45,196
69 Parra Catalan, Galician, Portuguese, and Spanish surname based on an occupational surname or toponym. The name derived from the Spanish noun parra meaning "vine." 46,315
70 Pascual Spanish surname based on the male Spanish given name Pascual. The name derived from the Latin word paschalis which referred to "Easter" originating in the Hebrew pesach meaning "Passover." 61,553
71 Pastor Galician, Portuguese, and Spanish surname based on an occupational surname for a shepherd. The name derived from the Latin verb pascere which means "to graze." The English surname Shepherd is a relative. 50,284
72 Peña Catalan, Galician, Portuguese, and Spanish surname based on a toponym. It could have referred to one of the many places with this word in their names or to any place known for its rocks or cliffs. The name derived from the Spanish noun peña meaning "rock." 68,825
73 Pérez Jewish (Sephardic) and Spanish patronymic surname based on the male Spanish given name Pedro, meaning "son of Pedro." The name Pedro derived from the male Greek name Petros which means "stone"; the surname Pérez corresponds to the English surname Peterson. 800,021
74 Prieto Spanish surname based on a moniker for a dark haired man. The name derived from the old adjective prieto which meant "black." 76,279
75 Ramírez Spanish patronymic surname based on the male Spanish given name Ramiro, meaning "son of Ramiro." The name Ramiro derived from the Latin name Ramirus originating in the Visigothic components ragin (counsel) and meri (famous). 135,786
76 Ramos Portuguese and Spanish surname based on a toponym referring to one of the many places by that name in Portugal and Spain. The name derived from the plural form of the Latin term ramus meaning "branches" and was probably given to someone living in a wooded area. 147,393
77 Reyes Spanish surname based on a moniker or an occupational surname for someone in the king's service. The name derived from the plural of the Spanish noun rey meaning "kings" and was also given to children born on Epiphany (Reyes). As a nickname, it could have described strong, overbearing, and demanding people. The English surname King is a relative. 60,350
78 Rodríguez Spanish patronymic of the male Spanish given name Rodrigo, meaning "son of Rodrigo." This name derived from the Germanic components hrod (fame) and ric (power), meaning "famous power." 930,332
79 Rojas Spanish surname based on a toponym referring to Rojas in Burgos and Guadalajara, Spain. The name derived from the Spanish adjective rojo meaning "red." As a moniker, the name could have referred to someone with red hair. 45,053
80 Román Spanish surname based on the male given name Román. The name Román derived from the Latin name Romanus which developed as a toponym meaning "Roman." 49,118
81 Romero Spanish surname probably based on a toponym or moniker used for those who went on a pilgrimage to Rome. The name derived from the Spanish noun romero meaning "pilgrim to Rome." 222,759
82 Rubio Spanish surname based on a moniker for a man with red hair or a red beard. The name derived from the Spanish adjective rubio which means "red." 108,237
83 Ruiz Spanish patronymic surname based on the short form Ruy of the male Spanish given name Rodrigo, meaning "son of Ruy." The name derived from the Germanic components hrod (fame) and ric (power), meaning "famous power." 376,458
84 Sáez Variant spelling Sáez of the Spanish patronymic surname Sáenz, probably meaning "son of Sancho." Sancho derived from the Latin sanctus and meant "sanctified." 48,571
85 Sánchez Spanish patronymic surname based on the male given name Sancho, meaning "son of Sancho." The name Sancho derived from the Latin name Sanctus, meaning "sanctified." 824,073
86 Santana Portuguese and Spanish surname based on a toponym referring to any place named Santana or Santa Ana. Many places are named after Santa Ana (Saint Ann), mother of the Virgin Mary, in Spain. 57,751
87 Santiago Spanish patronymic derived from the male Hebrew given name Ya'aqov which became Diego, then Jaime, and finally Santiago. The name is a relative of the English surnames Jacobs, Jacobson, James, and Jameson. 52,528
88 Santos Galician and Portuguese surname based on a given name, moniker, or ornamental surname. The name derived from the Spanish plural noun santos (saints) and was given to a person born or baptized on All Saints' Day, November 1st. 85,994
89 Sanz Spanish surname probably based on a variant of the Spanish patronymic surname Sánchez. This name is based on the male given name Sancho, meaning "son of Sancho." The name Sancho derived from the Latin name Sanctus, meaning "sanctified." 99,349
90 Serrano Spanish surname based on a toponym referring to a mountain ridge or mountain range. The name developed from an adjective derived from serra meaning "mountainous."   135,681
91 Soler Spanish surname probably based on a toponym referring to one of several places in Catalonia with a name based on "i>soler which means "ground." In Catalan, the name could also represent an occupational surname for a maker of soles for sandals or shoes, a shoemaker. 48,451
92 Soto Spelling variant of the Portuguese and Spanish surname Sotu based on a toponym referring to one of many places in Spain named Soto or El Soto. The name derived from the Spanish noun soto which means "grove." 49,222
93 Suárez Spanish patronymic surname of the male Spanish given name Suaro or Suero, meaning "son of Suaro" or "son of Suero."  The name Suaro derived from the Latin word suerius; it meant "hog farmer" and therefore could have developed into an occupational surname for a swineherd. 122,507
94 Torres Catalan, Galician, Jewish (Sephardic), Portuguese, and Spanish surname based on a toponym or occupational surname. The name derived from the plural form of the Spanish noun torre which means "towers." It could have referred to one of several places in Spain named Torres or been used for someone living near the towers. It could have also been a reference to a guard or watchman on a tower. 171,671
95 Vargas Portuguese and Spanish surname based on a toponym referring to Vargas in Santander, Spain. The name derived from the plural form of varga. The word meant "steepest part of a slope," "hut," or "fenced pastureland." 52,106
96 Vázquez Portuguese and Spanish surname of Basque origins, based on the male given name Vasco, meaning "son of Vasco." The name derived from a reduced form of Velásquez. It was also used to describe someone living in the Basque Country. 151,053
97 Vega Spanish surname based on a toponym referring to one of several places in Spain called La Vega or Vega. The name derived from the Spanish noun vega meaning "meadow." 66,214
98 Velasco Spanish surname based on the male Basque given name Belasco. It derived from the Basque meaning "small crow" and also became a toponym for several places in Spain. 48,892
99 Vicente Spanish surname based on the male Spanish given name Vicente. The name derived from the Roman name Vincentius which originated in the Latin verb vincere (to conquer). 54,192
100 Vidal Spanish surname based on the male Spanish given name Vidal. This name derived from the Latin name Vitalis; the meaning of vitalis being "full of life" and "healthy." 72,145